Types Of Cement And Their Uses
Obviously, one major sector where cement is heavily used is the construction industry. Cement is a building material, that is a powder, basically made of a mixture of calcined limestone and clay; used with water and sand or gravel to make concrete and mortar.
Cement is a binding element or a substance that is used to make things stick together.
There are different types of cement used when it comes to the construction of different project works. Each type of cement is used for a specific purpose. This post is going to shed more lights on the various types of cement and their uses.
Types Of Cement
Depending on the hardening and setting mechanism, cement can be classified into two (2) and they are: Hydraulic Cement and Non-hydraulic Cement.
Limestone, clay and gypsum which are the main raw materials, are burned at a very high temperature to produce hydraulic cement. This type of cement hardens by hydration in the presence of water.
Use: Hydraulic cement is used to form water-resistant products.
Non-hydraulic is the type of cement that does not require water to get harden. Non-hydraulic cement hardens with the help of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air and also, the hardening is been influenced by dry conditions. The raw materials required to produce non-hydraulic cement are: Lime, gypsum plasters and oxychloride.
Again, depending on the composition and characteristics, cement can be classified into thirteen (13) and they are: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Rapid Hardening Cement, Quick Setting Cement, Low Heat Cement, Sulphate Resisting Cement, Blast Furnace Cement, High Alumina Cement, White Cement, Colored Cement, Air Entraining Cement, Expansive Cement and Hydrophobic Cement.
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
This type of cement is made up of: calcium carbonate (limestone, chalk, and marl) and silicates of alumina (clay and shale).
Uses Of OPC
It is used for general construction purposes and most masonry works.
Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
This type of cement is made up of: OPC clinker, Gypsum and Pozzolanic materials (fly ash, volcanic ash, and calcined clay/silica fumes).
It is mostly used in marine structures, hydraulic structures, dam construction, construction near the seashore and etc.
Again, PPC is employed in pre-stressed and post-tensioned concrete members.
Moreover, because PPC renders a better surface finish, it is employed in decorative and art structures.
Then again, PPC is used in the manufacture of precast sewage pipes.
Rapid Hardening Cement (RHC)
RHC hardens or gains strength rapidly or quickly. The initial setting and final setting time of RHC is 30 minutes and 600 minutes respectively.
Uses Of RHC
RHC is usually used in instances where rapid/quick construction is needed. In addition, it renders high strength.
Quick Setting Cement (QSC)
It takes a very short time for Quick Setting Cement to set. The initial setting and final setting time of QSC is 5 minutes and 30 minutes respectively.
Quick Setting Cement is actually made up of: clinker and aluminum sulfate
Uses Of QSC
Qsc is employed in underwater construction.
Again, QSC is utilized for constructions, during rainy and cold weather conditions.
Moreover, QSC is employed in constructions done at higher temperature (where water evaporates easily).
Lastly, QSC is used for grounding or rock bolt mining and tunneling.
Low Heat Cement (LHC)
Uses of LHC
LHC is utilized for the construction of large raft slabs, wind turbine plinths and dam’s large footing.
Also, LHC is employed in the construction of chemical plants.
Sulphate Resisting Cement (SHC)
SHC has a lower percentage composition of Tricalcium aluminate and hence, production of calcium sulpho-aluminates is being reduced. Consequently, SRC is employed to withstand sulfate attacks in concrete.
Uses of SRC
SRC is employed in Chimney, Chemical industries, water storage, sumps, drainage works, Cooling towers, Coastal protective works such as sea walls, breakwaters, tetrapods, effluent treatment plants and etc.
Blast Furnace Cement
Uses of Blast Furnace Cement
Blast Furnace Cement is a sulfate resistant.
Blast Furnace Cement is mostly utilized in seawater construction.
High Alumina Cement
Uses of High Alumina Cement
High Alumina Cement is employed in instances where concrete edifices are exposed to high temperatures like: refractories, factories where metals are produced, etc.
Again, High Alumina Cement is utilized in instances where the concrete is exposed to rime and acidic reactions.
White cement is almost like Ordinary Portland Cement except for colour. Moreover, white cement is expensive than Ordinary Portland Cement.
Uses of White Cement
White Cement is mostly utilized in decorative works.
Also, White Cement can be employed in making tile grouts, traffic barriers, roof tiles patching materials, swimming pools and terrazzo surfaces.
To make colored cement, about 5 to 10 percent of suitable pigments (desired color) are ground with Ordinary Portland Cement.
Uses of Colored Cement
Colored cement is utilized for decorative works.
Uses of Hydrophobic Cement
Hydrophobic cement is mostly utilized in the construction of water structures. For instance: dams, spillways or other submerged structures.
Also, hydrophobic cement is employed in the construction of underground structures. For instance: tunnels, etc.
Air Entraining Cement